Stress is a big factor in learning. Even a small amount can have a negative impact.
Solution to model infant's 1st language instruction.
Pattern for learning language.
1. Listening
2. Speaking
3. Reading
4. Writing

Reading and writing were not expected until they had 5 years of listening and 3 years of speaking.
When we violate this pattern, we have problems.

TPR- Takes the successful attitudes and activities of 1st language acquisition and applying them to 2nd language learning.

TPR is mostly a right brain approach, especially in beginning stages.

In the end, we want a good balance of right and left brain working together.

Incomprehensible input is garbage (Dr. Asher).

The brain wants meaning, and loves the unexpected.

Reading without comprehension is not reading at all; it's just decoding.

You cannot pronounce what you cannot hear.  We can make a confident student very in competent by pushing pronunciation. Don't set up the affective filter too soon.

Basic procedure:  Reasons not to push pronunciation:
1. Students are not sure which words to say.
2. If a sound does not exist in the student's primary language, they actually cannot hear that sound.
3. It takes between 42 and 86 hearings to hear that new sound.

The body remembers.

When doing volunteers, give command first, then ask for volunteer.

Krashen- The important thing is to give comprehensible input. Secondly, comprehensible input must be provided in a setting of low anxiety.